C-chain for secure and immutable digital Business Processes


C-chain is used for the correct, immutable, complete and checkable (CICC) booking of transactions of a digital business process (Smart Contract) via a public or private account (public/private ledger).
As a Blockchain solution, C-chain consists of a distributed database whose contents are protected against subsequent changes. The participants of the C-chain can securely exchange their data via transaction chains within the C-chain-architecture. Thanks to its special architecture, C-chain is very efficient, easy to use and environmentally friendly.

Innovation Award IT 2018 of the initiative mittelstand: C-chain Best of IT-Security

Initiative Mittelstand awards INNOVATIONSPREIS-IT 2018 to particularly innovative IT solutions with high benefits for SMEs. The expert jury awards in this category the title BEST OF 2018:

C-chain for secure and immutable Business Processes

The excellent product convinced the jury and belongs to the top group of this year's INNOVATIONSPREIS-IT. The Initiative Mittelstand has therefore chosen particularly innovative solutions that make medium-sized companies fit for a successful digital future.

Based on C-chain, we support application scenarios across all sectors
  • Finance: C-cash (cash substitute) / C-bank (simple electronic banking) / C-depot (deposits management)
  • eMobility: Car Sharing / Car Leasing / eCharging / Maintenance Chain Tracking
  • Industrial Automation: IIoT Provisioning / Robot Process Automation (RPA) / Predictive Maintenance
  • Document Management: Intellectual Property Management / Citizens Safe
  • eHealth: Patient Regulations
  • B2C: Access Control Replacement / Member Cards / Email Certification

C-chain - the environmentally friendly blockchain to your advantage

C-chain is characterized by
  • a unique cryptID
  • Elimination of the login process
  • Elimination of a complex infrastructure
  • Securing Transactions through Cryptographic Procedures
  • Leverage the benefits of distributed database engineering (ACID, serialization, integrity)
The advantages of C-chain result from
  • high security via a cryptographic concept developed for all applications
  • immediate Final Settlement
  • very fast processing of transactions
  • extremely low transaction costs
  • perfect scaling
  • selective control of transaction visibility (anonymous or public)
  • controlling the degree of anonymity with a unique cryptID
  • digital identities, authentication, certificates publicly available

A summary of C-chain's highlights can be found in our C-chain Datasheet.

C-chain Process and Components

C-chain technical Highlights - explained

1. Unique cryptID

Each user and smart contract has a public key π and a private key σ. The cryptID consists of π and a digital signature for π using σ. This ensures that π is not any number but the first part of a key pair that belongs to an (unknown) user U.

π is similar to an email address. This email address does not necessarily exist or belong to the user who enters it. Therefore, in many applications it first has to be verified by a so-called two-factor method. The cryptID, on the other hand, is always cryptographically secured and is guaranteed to belong to the user U.

The cryptID is comparable to a digital DNA that originates from the (unknown) user U. U does not need to remember or enter his cryptID. Like the DNA, the cryptID is no secret, but is in the public user database UDB.

2. Elimination of the login process

With C-chain, the login process (including password) is no longer required for the user. The login name is the software generated cryptID. The password replacement is a random number r, which is signed with σ. The user does not need to remember or enter anything.

In this way, every conventional and usually tedious login procedure is completely replaced in C-chain. The client SW (for example, on a smartphone) does the login automatically at startup, without the user having to notice or do anything.

3. Identity and authenticity

The cryptID is the unique and unalterable identity of a user. Authenticity is the one to whom this identity belongs and is much harder to establish and prove.

For C-chain, authentication in the UDB is mostly done through a video selfie of the user reading a part of his own public key. Such a video is much more secure than any certificate as proof of authenticity.

4. Booking process

Transactions that belong to a business process are grouped into chains that are posted securely - that is, reliable, undistinguishable and indestructible.

The booking process is the core of C-chain. The hedging of individual bookings (see Proof of Work at Blockchain) is done by cryptographic methods in connection with relational databases in the TDB (transaction database). This makes C-chain highly efficient, perfectly scalable, and much safer and easier to use than Blockchain.

As booked transactions are basically only signed by U and then by the TDB itself, they can not be changed either by U or by the TDB or even by third parties.

5. Public key pairs

C-chain is based on cryptography in conjunction with relational databases. Therefore, each user has a key pair [π, σ] consisting of the public key π and the private, secret key σ.

π serves as the digital identity of a user U and at the same time for the encryption of secret messages to a receiver P. σ serves to provide digital signatures with cryptographic security.

6. Distributed databases

The transactions are summarized and managed according to semantically related chains. A chain is interesting only for the agents involved and is mostly replicated locally only by them and even stored multiple times on their smartphone or computer. As a result, these chains remain very small, in practical applications only a few MB per year.

They are immediately synchronized on a transaction newly stored in the TDB. By replicating and instantly distributing the transaction chains to at least 3 independent agents (U, V, TDB) - optionally even as many others as you want - the transactions booked are completely secure.

In addition, any malfunction can be immediately detected and verified, as the synchronization between the agents is done automatically within a booking within seconds.

7. Universal cryptograpy

All procedures and objects in C-chain are basically cryptographically secured. They can not be mutilated, falsified or denied, as they are publicly visible and can be copied and verified by many users.

All objects stored in databases are also cryptographically secured. Every time you try to manipulate or change a signed object, it bursts like a bubble.

Secure M2M Processes with onboard C-chain

Onboard C-chain is a C-chain version especially for M2M processes as they occur within Intelligent Manufacturing, Robotic Process Automation, eMobility, Smart Energy or eHealth. All components of C-chain are bundled in one device. So the complete C-chain system can be used on a single edge computer like Raspberry Pi.

In this implementation, C-chain is shielded from the outside by a closed firewall. The close coupling of all C-chain components (UDB, TDB, C-chain client, protocol client, smart Contract) and the embedded shared memory database results in extremely high transaction rates of more than 2,400 (two thousand four hundred) transactions per second as needed fe. for a large digital factory.